Major international banks are organized as holding corporations — in the US, the major banks are all financial holding corporations (FHCs). The holding company (referred to as the holdco”) sits at the prime of the legal structure. Right under the holdco is the layer of major regulated entities, which conduct the overwhelming majority of the bank’s day-to-day business, and make use of most of the financial institution’s staff. The most important main entities at the main US banks usually include registered broker-dealers in New York, London, and Asia, a chartered US commercial financial institution, a smaller continental European financial institution, and an asset supervisor.

Monoline insurers play a critical function in modern-day Credit Enhancements; they are more practical in (a) off-stability-sheet models creating artificial collateral, (b) sovereign rankings’ enhancement with constructed-in asset derivatives and (c) cross border loans with receivables and counterparties in the area and jurisdiction of the monoline insurer. The decision whether to use a monoline insurer or not typically relies upon upon the cost of such cover vis-a-vis the improvement in pricing for the loan or bond concern by virtue of such credit score enhancement.

Third, The Brown Paper Bag Challenge exhibits definitively that within the absence of data on an observable event foundation, investors are blindly betting once they buy a structured finance safety utilizing as soon as-per-month or less frequent collateral performance reviews. Present structured finance disclosure practices are the equal of putting the underlying collateral right into a brown paper bag. Then asking the investor when the contents have modified, but haven’t been reported, to guess the worth of contents of the brown paper bag.

With global equities markets in soften-up mode, it might sound absurd to warn that a troubling global monetary crisis is poised to worsen. But Structured Finance is Under Duress. Your complete daisy-chain of liquidity agreements, securitization structures, Credit score insurance and ensures, derivatives counterparty exposures and, even, the GSEs is increasingly suspect. Trust has been damaged and market confidence is just not far behind.

On this article Keen discusses how, in the fashionable financial system, credit score markets determine the availability of money. I discussed the same situation in my talk on the financial disaster (slide labeled Leverage). Allowing people to borrow from the future implies that the cash provide at any second is an advanced function of beliefs about danger, uncertainty, the long run, and many others.